Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2018
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
Basis of Presentation/Principals of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements and related notes have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“US GAAP”) and include the accounts of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiaries. All material intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities at the date of the condensed consolidated Financial Statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Such management estimates include allowance for doubtful accounts, estimates of product returns, warranty expense, inventory valuation, valuation allowances of deferred taxes, stock-based compensation expenses and fair value of warrants and derivatives. The Company bases its estimates on historical experience and on assumptions that it believes are reasonable. The Company assesses these estimates on a regular basis; however, actual results could materially differ from those estimates.
Concentration of Risk Related to Third-party Suppliers
We depend on a limited number of third-party suppliers for the materials and components required to manufacture our products. A delay or interruption by our suppliers may harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition, and could also adversely affect our future profit margins. In addition, the lead time needed to establish a relationship with a new supplier can be lengthy, and we may experience delays in meeting demand in the event we must change or add new suppliers. Our dependence on our suppliers exposes us to numerous risks, including but not limited to the following: our suppliers may cease or reduce production or deliveries, raise prices, or renegotiate terms; we may be unable to locate a suitable replacement supplier on acceptable terms or on a timely basis, or at all; and delays caused by supply issues may harm our reputation, frustrate our customers, and cause them to turn to our competitors for future needs.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The Company recognizes and discloses the fair value of its assets and liabilities using a hierarchy that prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value. The hierarchy gives the highest priority to valuations based upon unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1 measurements) and the lowest priority to valuations based upon unobservable inputs that are significant to the valuation (Level 3 measurements). Each level of input has different levels of subjectivity and difficulty involved in determining fair value.
The carrying amounts of the Company’s financial assets and liabilities, including cash, accounts receivable, accounts payable, and accrued liabilities approximate fair value because of the short maturity of these instruments. The carrying value of the Company’s loan payable and convertible notes payable approximates fair value based upon borrowing rates currently available to the Company for loans with similar terms.
ASC 280 defines operating segments as components of an enterprise about which separate financial information is available that is evaluated regularly by the chief operating decision maker in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performances. Currently, ASC 280 has no effect on the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements as substantially all of the Company’s operations are conducted in one industry segment.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less to be cash equivalents. As of December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017, the Company held no cash equivalents.
The Company’s policy is to place its cash with high credit quality financial instruments and institutions and limit the amounts invested with any one financial institution or in any type of instrument. Deposits held with banks may exceed the amount of insurance provided on such deposits. The Company has not experienced any losses on its deposits of cash.
Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
Accounts receivable are recorded at the invoiced amount and are not interest bearing. The Company maintains an allowance for doubtful accounts for estimated losses resulting from the inability of its customers to make required payments. The Company makes ongoing assumptions relating to the collectability of its accounts receivable in its calculation of the allowance for doubtful accounts. In determining the amount of the allowance, the Company makes judgments about the creditworthiness of customers based on ongoing credit evaluations and assesses current economic trends affecting its customers that might impact the level of credit losses in the future and result in different rates of bad debts than previously seen. The Company also considers its historical level of credit losses. As of December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017, there was an allowance for doubtful accounts of $27,851 and $27,851 respectively.
During the year ended December 31, 2018 the Company recorded a bad debt expense of $0.
Inventory is stated at the lower of cost or market value. Inventory is determined to be salable based on demand forecast within a specific time horizon, generally eighteen months or less. Inventory in excess of salable amounts and inventory which is considered obsolete based upon changes in existing technology is written off. At the point of recognition, a new lower cost basis for that inventory is established and subsequent changes in facts and circumstances do not result in the restoration or increase in that new cost basis.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are recorded at cost, less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Depreciation and amortization are provided using the straight-line method over the useful life as follows:
Accounting for Website Development Costs
The Company capitalizes certain external and internal costs, including internal payroll costs, incurred in connection with the development of its website. These costs are capitalized beginning when the Company has entered the application development stage and cease when the project is substantially complete and is ready for its intended use. The website development costs are amortized using the straight-line method over the estimated useful life of three years.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
Long-lived assets, such as property and equipment, are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of such assets may not be recoverable. Recoverability of assets to be held and used is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of an asset to future undiscounted net cash flows expected to be generated by the asset. If the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its estimated future cash flows, an impairment charge is recognized in the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset exceeds the fair value of the asset. Assets to be disposed of would be separately presented in the balance sheets and reported at the lower of the carrying amount or fair value less costs to sell, and no longer depreciated. The assets and liabilities of a disposed group classified as held for sale would be presented separately in the appropriate asset and liability sections of the balance sheets.
Debt Discount and Debt Issuance Costs
Debt discounts and debt issuance costs incurred in connection with the issuance of debt are capitalized and amortized to interest expense based on the related debt agreements using the straight-line method. Unamortized discounts are netted against long-term debt.
In accordance with Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Paragraph 815-15-25-1 the conversion feature and certain other features are considered embedded derivative instruments, such as a conversion reset provision, a penalty provision and redemption option, which are to be recorded at their fair value as its fair value can be separated from the convertible note and its conversion is independent of the underlying note value. The Company records the resulting discount on debt related to the conversion features at initial transaction and amortizes the discount using the effective interest rate method over the life of the debt instruments. The conversion liability is then marked to market each reporting period with the resulting gains or losses shown in the statements of operations.
In circumstances where the embedded conversion option in a convertible instrument is required to be bifurcated and there are also other embedded derivative instruments in the convertible instrument that are required to be bifurcated, the bifurcated derivative instruments are accounted for as a single, compound derivative instrument.
The Company follows ASC Section 815-40-15 (“Section 815-40-15”) to determine whether an instrument (or an embedded feature) is indexed to the Company’s own stock. Section 815-40-15 provides that an entity should use a two-step approach to evaluate whether an equity-linked financial instrument (or embedded feature) is indexed to its own stock, including evaluating the instrument’s contingent exercise and settlement provisions. The adoption of Section 815-40-15 has affected the accounting for (i) certain freestanding warrants that contain exercise price adjustment features and (ii) convertible bonds issued by foreign subsidiaries with a strike price denominated in a foreign currency.
The Company evaluates its convertible debt, options, warrants or other contracts, if any, to determine if those contracts or embedded components of those contracts qualify as derivatives to be separately accounted for in accordance with paragraph 810-10-05-4 and Section 815-40-25 of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification. The result of this accounting treatment is that the fair value of the embedded derivative is marked-to-market each balance sheet date and recorded as either an asset or a liability. In the event that the fair value is recorded as a liability, the change in fair value is recorded in the consolidated statement of operations as other income or expense. Upon conversion, exercise or cancellation of a derivative instrument, the instrument is marked to fair value at the date of conversion, exercise or cancellation and then that the related fair value is reclassified to equity.
The Company utilizes the binomial option pricing model to compute the fair value of the derivative and to mark to market the fair value of the derivative at each balance sheet date. The binomial option pricing model includes subjective input assumptions that can materially affect the fair value estimates. The expected volatility is estimated based on the most recent historical period of time equal to the remaining contractual term of the instrument granted.
Income taxes are provided in accordance with ASC No. 740, “Accounting for Income Taxes”. A deferred tax asset or liability is recorded for all temporary differences between financial and tax reporting and net operating loss carry forwards. Deferred tax expense (benefit) results from the net change during the period of deferred tax assets and liabilities.
Deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance when, in the opinion of management, it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are adjusted for the effects of changes in tax laws and rates on the date of enactment.
The Company is no longer subject to tax examinations by tax authorities for years prior to 2013.
The Company adopted ASC 606 effective January 1, 2018 using the modified retrospective method which would require a cumulative effect adjustment for initially applying the new revenue standard as an adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings and the comparative information would not require to be restated and continue to be reported under the accounting standards in effect for those periods.
Based on the Company’s analysis the Company did not identify a cumulative effect adjustment for initially applying the new revenue standards. The Company principally generates revenue through providing product, services and licensing revenue.
The adoption of ASC 606 represents a change in accounting principle that will more closely align revenue recognition with the delivery of the Company’s services and will provide financial statement readers with enhanced disclosures. In accordance with ASC 606, revenue is recognized when a customer obtains control of promised services. The amount of revenue recognized reflects the consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled to receive in exchange for these services. To achieve this core principle, the Company applies the following five steps:
A contract with a customer exists when (i) the Company enters into an enforceable contract with a customer that defines each party’s rights regarding the services to be transferred and identifies the payment terms related to these services, (ii) the contract has commercial substance and, (iii) the Company determines that collection of substantially all consideration for services that are transferred is probable based on the customer’s intent and ability to pay the promised consideration. The Company applies judgment in determining the customer’s ability and intention to pay, which is based on a variety of factors including the customer’s historical payment experience or, in the case of a new customer, published credit and financial information pertaining to the customer.
Performance obligations promised in a contract are identified based on the services that will be transferred to the customer that are both capable of being distinct, whereby the customer can benefit from the service either on its own or together with other resources that are readily available from third parties or from the Company, and are distinct in the context of the contract, whereby the transfer of the services is separately identifiable from other promises in the contract. To the extent a contract includes multiple promised services, the Company must apply judgment to determine whether promised services are capable of being distinct and distinct in the context of the contract. If these criteria are not met the promised services are accounted for as a combined performance obligation.
The transaction price is determined based on the consideration to which the Company will be entitled in exchange for transferring services to the customer. To the extent the transaction price includes variable consideration, the Company estimates the amount of variable consideration that should be included in the transaction price utilizing either the expected value method or the most likely amount method depending on the nature of the variable consideration. Variable consideration is included in the transaction price if, in the Company’s judgment, it is probable that a significant future reversal of cumulative revenue under the contract will not occur. None of the Company’s contracts as of December 31, 2018 contained a significant financing component. Determining the transaction price requires significant judgment, which is discussed by revenue category in further detail below.
If the contract contains a single performance obligation, the entire transaction price is allocated to the single performance obligation. However, if a series of distinct services that are substantially the same qualifies as a single performance obligation in a contract with variable consideration, the Company must determine if the variable consideration is attributable to the entire contract or to a specific part of the contract. For example, a bonus or penalty may be associated with one or more, but not all, distinct services promised in a series of distinct services that forms part of a single performance obligation. Contracts that contain multiple performance obligations require an allocation of the transaction price to each performance obligation based on a relative standalone selling price basis unless the transaction price is variable and meets the criteria to be allocated entirely to a performance obligation or to a distinct service that forms part of a single performance obligation. The Company determines standalone selling price based on the price at which the performance obligation is sold separately. If the standalone selling price is not observable through past transactions, the Company estimates the standalone selling price taking into account available information such as market conditions and internally approved pricing guidelines related to the performance obligations.
The Company satisfies performance obligations either over time or at a point in time. Revenue is recognized at the time the related performance obligation is satisfied by transferring a promised service to a customer.
The following table presents sales by operating segment disaggregated based on type of product and geographic region for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017.
Product revenue is recognized when or as we satisfy a performance obligation. We generally satisfy performance obligations at a point in time upon delivery of goods, in accordance with the terms of the contract customer.
Some of the Company’s revenues are generated from software-as-a-service (“SaaS”) subscription offerings and related product support and maintenance. SaaS revenues stem mainly from annual subscriptions and are recorded evenly over the term of the subscription. Any customer payments received in advance are deferred until they are earned. Consulting and training revenues are recognized as work is performed.
Cost of Sales
We include product costs (i.e. material, direct labor and overhead costs), shipping and handling expense, product royalty expense, and product license agreement expense in cost of sales.
The Company provides a limited warranty for its analyzers and sensors for a period of 1 year from the date of shipment that such goods will be free from material defects in material and workmanship. The Company has assessed the historical claims and, to date, warranty claims have not been significant. The Company will continue to assess the need to record a warranty accrual at the time of sale going forward.
For any product in its original, undamaged and unmarked condition, with its included accessories and packaging along with the original receipt (or gift receipt) within 30 days of the date the customer receives the product, the Company will exchange it or offer a refund based upon the original payment method.
The Company accounts for funds received from crowdfunding campaigns and pre-sales as a liability on the consolidated balance sheets as the investments made entitle the investor to apply these funds towards future shipments once the product has been developed and available for commercial use.
Research and Development Costs
Research and development costs are charged to expense as incurred. These costs consist primarily of salaries and direct payroll-related costs. It also includes purchased materials and services provided by independent contractors, software developed by other companies and incorporated into or used in the development of our final products. Research and development expenses for the year ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 were $285,395 and $170,385, respectively.
Advertising costs are charged to sales and marketing expenses and general and administrative expenses as incurred. Advertising expenses, which are recorded in sales and marketing and general and administrative expenses, totaled $153,626 and $968,687 for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
The Company accounts for stock-based compensation in accordance with ASC Topic 718, “Compensation – Stock Compensation” (“ASC 718”) which establishes financial accounting and reporting standards for stock-based employee compensation. It defines a fair value based method of accounting for an employee stock option or similar equity instrument. Accordingly, stock-based compensation is recognized in the consolidated statements of operations as an operating expense over the requisite service period. The Company uses the Black-Scholes option pricing model adjusted for the estimated forfeiture rate for the respective grant to determine the estimated fair value of stock-based compensation arrangements on the date of grant and expenses this value ratably over the requisite service period of the stock option. The Black-Scholes option pricing model requires the input of highly subjective assumptions. Because the Company’s stock options have characteristics significantly different from those of traded options, and because changes in the subjective input assumptions can materially affect the fair value estimate, in management’s opinion, the existing models may not provide a reliable single measure of the fair value of the Company’s stock options. In addition, management will continue to assess the assumptions and methodologies used to calculate estimated fair value of stock-based compensation. Circumstances may change and additional data may become available over time, which could result in changes to these assumptions and methodologies for future grants, and which could materially impact the Company’s fair value determination.
The Company accounts for share-based payments to non-employees in accordance with ASC 505-50 “Equity Based Payments to Non-Employees”. If the equity instrument is a stock option, the Company uses the Black-Scholes option pricing model to determine the fair value. Assumptions used to value the equity instruments are consistent with equity instruments issued to employees as the terms of the awards are similar. The Company recognizes the fair value of the equity instruments as expense over the term of the service agreement and revalues that fair value at each reporting period over the vesting periods of the equity instruments.
The Company and its collaborative partners are active participants in the collaborative arrangements and both parties are exposed to significant risks and rewards depending on the commercial success of the activity. The Company records all expenses related to collaborative arrangements as research and development expense in the consolidated statements of operations as incurred.
Earnings per Share
Basic net loss per common share is computed by dividing net loss attributable to common stockholders by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net loss per common share is determined using the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period, adjusted for the dilutive effect of common stock equivalents. In periods when losses are reported, which is the case for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 presented in these condescend consolidated financial statements, the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding excludes common stock equivalents because their inclusion would be anti-dilutive.
The Company had the following common stock equivalents at December 31, 2018 and 2017:
There were approximately 5,496,491,053 potentially outstanding dilutive common shares for the period ended December 31, 2018. Since the Company incurred a net loss for the period ended December 31, 2018, the inclusion of any common stock equivalents would have been anti-dilutive.
Recent Accounting Guidance Adopted
In April 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-10, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers: Identifying Performance Obligations and Licensing” (topic 606). In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-08, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers: Principal versus Agent Considerations (Reporting Revenue Gross versus Net)” (topic 606). These amendments provide additional clarification and implementation guidance on the previously issued ASU 2014-09, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers”. The amendments in ASU 2016-10 provide clarifying guidance on materiality of performance obligations; evaluating distinct performance obligations; treatment of shipping and handling costs; and determining whether an entity’s promise to grant a license provides a customer with either a right to use an entity’s intellectual property or a right to access an entity’s intellectual property. The amendments in ASU 2016-08 clarify how an entity should identify the specified good or service for the principal versus agent evaluation and how it should apply the control principle to certain types of arrangements. The adoption of ASU 2016-10 and ASU 2016-08 is to coincide with an entity’s adoption of ASU 2014-09, which we adopted for interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017. The adoption of ASU 2016-10 had no material effect on its financial position or results of operations or cash flows.
In May 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-12, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606): Narrow-Scope Improvements and Practical Expedients”, which narrowly amended the revenue recognition guidance regarding collectability, noncash consideration, presentation of sales tax and transition and is effective during the same period as ASU 2014-09. The adoption of ASU 2016-12 had no material effect on its financial position or results of operations or cash flows.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, “Leases (Topic 842).” Under ASU 2016-02, lessees will, among other things, require lessees to recognize a lease liability, which is a lessee’s obligation to make lease payments arising from a lease, measured on a discounted basis; and a right-of-use asset, which is an asset that represents the lessee’s right to use, or control the use of, a specified asset for the lease term. ASU 2016-02 does not significantly change lease accounting requirements applicable to lessors; however, certain changes were made to align, where necessary, lessor accounting with the lessee accounting model and ASC Topic 606, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers.” ASU 2016-02 will be effective for us on January 1, 2019 and initially required transition using a modified retrospective approach for leases existing at, or entered into after, the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented in the financial statements. In July 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-11 , “Leases (Topic 842) - Targeted Improvements,” which, among other things, provides an additional transition method that would allow entities to not apply the guidance in ASU 2016-02 in the comparative periods presented in the financial statements and instead recognize a cumulative-effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings in the period of adoption. In December 2018, the FASB also issued ASU 2018-20, “Leases (Topic 842) - Narrow-Scope Improvements for Lessors,” which provides for certain policy elections and changes lessor accounting for sales and similar taxes and certain lessor costs. As of January 1, 2019, the Company adopted ASU 2016-02 and has recorded a right-of-use asset and lease liability on the balance sheet for its operating leases. We elected to apply certain practical expedients provided under ASU 2016-02 whereby we will not reassess(i) whether any expired or existing contracts are or contain leases, (ii) the lease classification for any expired or existing leases and (iii) initial direct costs for any existing leases. We also do not expect to apply the recognition requirements of ASU 2016-02 to any short-term leases (as defined by related accounting guidance). We expect to account for lease and non-lease components separately because such amounts are readily determinable under our lease contracts and because we expect this election will result in a lower impact on our balance sheet.
Management does not believe that any recently issued, but not yet effective accounting pronouncements, when adopted, will have a material effect on the accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef